Author guidelines for FF Communications and FF Network

For publication, please submit the text in Microsoft Word file (docx, doc) or Rich Text Format (rtf) file. The file can be sent by email to the editor and/or the edit­orial­­ secretary.


Important: please avoid all extra formatting of the text (use of styles, manual indents, etc.).

In order to indicate the hierarchy of headings in the text (excluding title and subtitle), please use boldface, italics and underlining. Boldface and underlining are not to be used elsewhere in the text unless they have been used, for example, in the original text of a quotation. Italics can be used, although sparingly, when a certain word, term or sentence needs to be emphasized.

Throughout the text, titles of books, journals/periodicals, or individual works are italicized whereas titles of articles are put in single quotation marks.

Single quotation marks (‘ ’) should be used for quotations of original texts. If the quotation exceeds three sentences, the quotation should be indented as a separate paragraph. Single quotation marks should also be used for translations of original texts, and to set off certain words or terms. Omissions in quotations are indicated by three dots separated from the preceding and following word by a single space.

Notes and references

The reference system used in the FF Communications and FF Network is twofold. 

1. Citations should be placed within the body of text. Use punctuation consistently.

Examples for a bibliographic reference: 

Instead, the song is being ‘centered’ or pulled closer to a specific interpretive matrix and subjected to translation (Hanks 1989: 103–4).

According to Anthony Giddens (2006: 163–7, 534) the agencies of socialization push the individuation process towards self-awareness.

If two or more references are cited, they are separated by a semicolon (e.g., Hoover 2008: 33–4;
Giddens 2006: 532).

Example for a quotation:

‘Computer-mediated communication is not just a way of exchanging messages but is also a powerful way to create narratives’ (Ornella 2013: 157).

2. Footnotes can be used when there is a need for a secondary discussion. Please use the ‘insert footnote’ -command when preparing the file.

Important: bibliographic information of the cited references is to be added in the list of references, not in the text or in footnotes.

References to web materials should be treated as printed references. In cases where the name of the author is not known, the reference must be named (e.g. title of the work, name of the website, pseudo­nym etc.). The address of the web page is never to be in­serted­ ­­in the text or in the footnotes, but always in the list of references only.

List of references

The alphabetical list of works and other (e.g. archive, web) material is to be placed in the end of the article. 

Examples for articles:

Cohen, Yoel 2001. ‘Mass media in the Jewish tradition’ in Religion and Popular Culture, ed. Daniel Stout and Judith Buddenbaum (Ames, Iowa State University Press), pp. 95–108.

Daston, Lorraine 1991. ‘Marvelous facts and miraculous evidence in early modern Europe’, Critical Inquiry 18(1), pp. 93–124.

Hänska-Ahy, Maximilian T., and Roxanna Shapour 2013. ’Who’s reporting the protests?’ Journalism Studies 14(1), pp. 29–45 (DOI 10.1080/1461670X.2012.657908).

Honigmann, David 1989. ‘Wars and rumours of wars’, review of The View from the Ground by Martha Gellhorn, Listener, 26 October 1989, p. 31.

Solayman, Hanan 2010. ‘Cyber hajj season begins in second life’, EMAJ Magazine, 14 November 2010, <>.

Always give inclusive pages for articles, reviews, etc. that appear in journals or in edited volumes. 

Examples for books and other works:

Bianchi, Robert 2004. Guests of God: Pilgrimage and Politics in the Islamic World (Oxford University Press)

Brohm, John Frank 1957. Burmese Religion and the Burmese Buddhist Revival, PhD dissertation, Cornell­­­­ University

Hakamies, Pekka, and Anneli Honko (eds) 2013. Theoretical Milestones: Selected Writings of Lauri Honko­­­­, FF Communications, 304 (Helsinki, Academia Scientiarum Fennica)

Holbek, Bengt 1998. Interpretation of Fairy Tales: Danish Folklore in a European Perspective, 2nd edn, FF Communications, 239 (Helsinki, Academia Scientiarum Fennica)

When the place of publication is implicit in the publisher’s name, it may be omitted.

Transliterations from non-Latin script system into English should follow the transliteration systems of the British Library.

Examples for web sources:

D’Costa, Gavin 2012. ‘Teaching or commanding: a response to Professor Nicholas Lash’, 14 November 2012, <> (accessed 21.11.2012).

Dottrina [pseudonym] 2012. Comment, 8 November 2012, <> (accessed 23 November 2012).

Three Things About Islam [title of a video] 2011. <> (accessed 1.12.2011).

References to web pages must always include the date of access, except for articles published in journals that have a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) number.

Established archives usually have referring system guidelines to their own materials. The archive’s own referring system may be used in the text as long as it is done consistently. Abbreviations used in the references are to be opened in the list of archive sources, and the archive where the material is preserved must be mentioned. If the material is in the possession of the author, that is to be noted accordingly. 

Photographs and other illustrations

When choosing images, please note that the FFC monographs are printed in black and white. The FFN journal is published digitally, and good quality color images are very welcome.

Images should be sent as separate files, not inserted in manuscripts, as the word processors compress the images and their quality suffers.

It is the author’s responsibility to obtain permission to reprint any material that is under copyright. 

Photographs accompanying articles that are accepted for publication must be at the resolution of 300 pixels per inch or higher and should be in jpeg or tiff format. Line drawings and maps should be submitted at a resolution of 1200 ppi (in 1:1 size, the width of the FFN page is 170 mm).

The preferred place of the photograph in the text may be designated by placing the caption of the photograph and, e.g., <Fig. 1 here>. The source of the illustration, name of the photographer­­­, or other­­­ indication of the copyright must always be included in the caption.

For more information on the style and guidelines of the Folklore Fellows publications please contact the editorial secretary.  

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