Stylesheet for FFC and FFN manuscripts

For publication, please submit the text in Microsoft Word file (docx, doc) or Rich Text Format (rtf) file. The file can be sent by email to the editor and/or the edit­orial­­ secretary.

Please avoid all extra formatting of the text (use of styles, manual indents, etc.).


In order to indicate the hierarchy of headings in the text (excluding title and subtitle), please use boldface (level 1, after chapter titles), bold-italic (level 2), and bold-underline (level 3). Headings may also be numbered, but this is not required.

Font Styles

Font styles should generally be limited to italic. Italic should be used for:

  • Titles of books, journals, and titles of relevant types of works (e.g. Beowulf)
  • Foriegn words / text within a heading, paragraph, or note
  • For emphasis (sparingly) to set off a word or sentence, such as introducing a technical term for the first time (e.g. the term scribal performance refers to…)

Outside of marking different levels of heading, do not use bold (unless required by convention, as in transliterations of runic script) and avoid underline unless this is needed as a second type of markup alongside italic. Never use expanded text for emphasis.

Quotes and Quotation Marks

Double quotation marks (” “) should be used for quotations of original texts; quotation marks should be rounded for the language of the book throughout the manuscript (also in bibliographies). If the quotation exceeds three lines of text / 40 words or 3 lines of verse, it should appear as a block quote as a separate paragraph without quotation marks. Block quotations should be set apart from the preceding and following text by a space and indented (which makes them easier to recognized by peer-reviewers). When text is omitted from a quotation, this should be indicated by three dots in square brackets […]; the author’s insertions and clarifications should also appear in square brackets [sic].

All quotations should be accompanied by citations including the page number, when this is possible for the source.

Foreign Language and Translations

All foreign words and text in the main text or notes should be accompanied by a translation. When these appear within the text of a paragraph or note, they should be set apart by parentheses and double quotation marks (” “). When these accompany a block quote, place the translation following the original text without quotation marks.  For poetry in short lines, translations may appear as parallel text, in which case the text and translations should be aligned in tables in the submitted document.


Use a dash – not a hyphen – between numbers. Always write out numbers in full 163–167, NOT 163–7; 1980–1990, NOT 1980–90.

Notes and references

Citations should be placed within the body of text inside punctuation. Use punctuation consistently.

Examples for a bibliographic reference:

  • Instead, the song is being ‘centered’ or pulled closer to a specific interpretive matrix and subjected to translation (Hanks 1989: 103–104).
  • According to Anthony Giddens (2006: 163–167, 534) the agencies of socialization push the individuation process towards self-awareness.

Separate two authors’ names by an ampersand & (Bauman & Briggs 1997) and use “etc.” when the authors are three or more (Tarkka et al. 2018).

If two or more references are cited, they are separated by a semicolon in order by date, with multiple publications of the same date organized alphabetically (e.g. Saussure 1916: 31; de Vries 1957–1957 II: 31–37; Giddens 2006: 532; Hoover 2006: 33–34).

Example of a quotation:

“Computer-mediated communication is not just a way of exchanging messages but is also a powerful way to create narratives” (Ornella 2013: 157).

Footnotes can be used when there is a need for a secondary discussion. Please use the “insert footnote” -command when preparing the file. Note numbers should appear outside of punctuation except where they are attached to a word or phrase within a sentence.

Important: bibliographic information of the cited references is to be added in the list of references, not in the text or in footnotes.

References to web materials should be treated as printed references. In cases where the name of the author is not known, the reference must be named (e.g. title of the work, name of the website, pseudo­nym etc.). The address of the web page is never to be in­serted­ ­­in the text or in the footnotes, but always in the list of references only.

List of Works Cited

The alphabetical list of works and other (e.g. archive, web) material is to be placed in the end of the article. Works cited should be divided into “Sources” and “Literature”, with additional sections as needed (e.g. “Web Pages” or “Manuscripts”).

Always give inclusive page ranges for articles, reviews, etc. that appear in journals or in edited volumes.

Examples for articles:

  • Cohen, Yoel 2001. “Mass Media in the Jewish Tradition”. In Religion and Popular Culture. Ed. Daniel Stout & Judith Buddenbaum. Ames: Iowa State University Press. Pp. 95–108.
  • Daston, Lorraine 1991. “Marvelous Facts and Miraculous Evidence in Early Modern Europe”. Critical Inquiry 18(1): 93–124.
  • Hänska-Ahy, Maximilian T., & Roxanna Shapour 2013. “Who’s Reporting the Protests?”. Journalism Studies 14(1): 29–45 (DOI 10.1080/1461670X.2012.657908).
  • Honigmann, David 1989. “Wars and Rumours of Wars” (review of Martha Gellhorn, The View from the Ground). Listener, 26 October 1989. P. 31.
  • Solayman, Hanan 2010. “Cyber hajj Season Begins in Second Life”. EMAJ Magazine, 14 November 2010 <>.

Examples for books and other works:

  • Bianchi, Robert 2004. Guests of God: Pilgrimage and Politics in the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Brohm, John Frank 1957. Burmese Religion and the Burmese Buddhist Revival. PhD dissertation. Ithaca: Cornell­­­­ University.
  • Hakamies, Pekka, & Anneli Honko (eds.) 2013. Theoretical Milestones: Selected Writings of Lauri Honko­­­­. FF Communications 304. Helsinki: Academia Scientiarum Fennica.
  • de Vries, Jan 1956–1957. Altgermanische Religionsgeschichte, I–II. Grundriss der germanischen Philologie 12. 2nd ed. Berlin: de Gruyter.

When the place of publication is implicit in the publisher’s name, it may be omitted.

Transliterations from non-Latin script system into English should follow the transliteration systems of the British Library.

Examples for web sources:

  • D’Costa, Gavin 2012. “Teaching or Commanding: A Response to Professor Nicholas Lash”. Published 14 November 2012 <> (accessed 21.11.2012).
  • Dottrina [online identity] 2012. Comment posted 8 November 2012 <> (accessed 23 November 2012).
  • Three Things About Islam 2011. <> (accessed 1.12.2011).

References to web pages must always include the date of access, except for articles published in journals that have a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) number.

Established archives usually have referring system guidelines to their own materials. The archive’s own referring system may be used in the text as long as it is done consistently. Abbreviations used in the references are to be opened in the list of archive sources, and the archive where the material is preserved must be mentioned. If the material is in the possession of the author, that is to be noted accordingly.

Photographs and other illustrations

When choosing images, please note that the FFC monographs are printed in black and white. The FFN journal is published digitally, and good quality color images are very welcome.

Images should be sent as separate files, not inserted in manuscripts, as the word processors compress the images and their quality suffers.

It is the author’s responsibility to obtain permission to reprint any material that is under copyright.

Photographs accompanying articles that are accepted for publication must be at the resolution of 300 pixels per inch or higher and should be in jpeg or tiff format. Line drawings and maps should be submitted at a resolution of 1200 ppi (in 1:1 size, the width of the FFN page is 170 mm).

The preferred place of the photograph in the text may be designated by placing the caption of the photograph and, e.g., <Fig. 1 here>. The source of the illustration, name of the photographer­­­, or other­­­ indication of the copyright must always be included in the caption.

For more information on the style and guidelines of the Folklore Fellows publications please contact the editorial secretary.

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